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LES RÉFÉRENCES SCIENTIFIQUES SUR LE LAIT DE JUMENT

Sont cités ici quelques articles récents publiés dans des revues scientifiques internationales, livres, thèses et mémoires, représentatifs de travaux scientifiques sur les particularités nutritionnelles et cosmétiques du Lait de Jument.

Références internationales

Characterization of an anti-Listeria bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum LB-B1 isolated from koumiss, a traditionally fermented dairy product from China
Ying Xie, Haoran An, Yanling Hao, Qianqian Qin, Ying Huang, Yunbo Luo, Liebing Zhang
Résumé : Lactobacillus plantarum LB-B1, isolated from a traditionally fermented dairy product koumiss, produced a bacteriocin active against strains of Listeria, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus and Escherichia. Pediocin LB-B1 was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, but stable between pH 2.0–10.0 and heat resistant (15 min at 121 °C). It did not adhere to the surface of the producer cells. However, adsorption to both resistant and sensitive cells was observed. Production of the bacteriocin started at the early exponential phase and reached its maximum at the early stationary phase. This result suggested that pediocin LB-B1 was produced as a primary metabolite. Its mode of action was bactericidal, as determined against Listeria monocytogenes 54002. Pediocin LB-B1 was estimated between 2.5 kDa and 6.5 kDa by tricine–SDS–PAGE. Furthermore, the gene cluster encoding pediocin LB-B1 showed 99.8% homology with the operon encoding pediocin PA-1, suggesting that the two bacteriocins are identical.
(Traduction : le lait de jument fermenté (Koumiss) contient une protéine bactéricide active contre les principales espèces bactériennes responsables d'infections digestives. Ces données confirment l'activité anti-bactérienne locale du lait de jument)

Food Control, Volume 22, Issue 7, July 2011, Pages 1027-1031
 
Antimicrobial effect of donkeys’ milk digested in vitro with human gastrointestinal enzymes 
Flavio Tidona, Camilla Sekse, Andrea Criscione, Morten Jacobsen, Salvatore Bordonaro, Donata Marletta, Gerd Elisabeth Vegarud
Résumé : Individual donkey milk samples were digested in vitro by a two-step model, using human gastric juice at two different pH values (2 and 4) and further continuous intestinal digestion by human duodenal juice at pH 7.5. The degradation of proteins was assessed after each step. Caseins and ?-lactoglobulins were digested rapidly in the gastric juice at pH 2 compared with pH 4 while whey proteins such as lysozyme and ?-lactalbumin were very resistant during the total digestion. The identified peptides were mainly derived from ?- and ?s1-casein and the two ?-lactoglobulins. The antimicrobial effect of milk and digested milk samples was tested on selected pathogenic bacteria. No significant inhibition of Bacillus cereus RT INF01 was observed, while a significant growth reduction was shown on Escherichia coli 10208355 during its stationary phase. Digested and undigested donkeys’ milk also significantly inhibited Listeria monocytogenes 2230/92 in a dose dependent way.
(Traduction : L'effet anti bactérien du lait d'anesse a été testé vis-à-vis de certaines bactéries intestinales pathogènes. Il n'est pas efficace sur Bacillus cereus. Il a par contre une activité inhibitrice importante sur Escherichia coli (Colibacille) et Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria). Ces effets sont dus au Lysozyme présent en grande quantité dans le lait, qui résiste à la digestion dans l'estomac et l'intestin grêle.)

International Dairy Journal, 21 : 158-165, 2011

Equine milk proteins: Chemistry, structure and nutritional significance   
Therese Uniacke-Lowe, Thom Huppertz, Patrick F. Fox

Résumé : Equine milk has important nutritional and therapeutic properties that can benefit the diet of the elderly, convalescent or newborn. The protein content of equine milk is lower than that of bovine milk but similar to that of human milk. In this review qualitative and quantitative differences between the caseins and whey proteins of equine, bovine and human milk are discussed. Important biological and functional properties of specific proteins are reviewed and their significance in human nutrition considered. As well as characterizing equine milk proteins in the context of human nutrition and allergology, the potential industrial exploitation of equine milk is explored. Cross-reactivity of proteins from different species is discussed in relation to the treatment of cows’ milk protein allergy. While there is some scientific basis for the special nutritional and health-beneficial properties of equine milk based on its protein composition and similarity to human milk, further research is required to fully exploit its potential in human nutrition.
(Traduction : Des hypothèses scientifiques basées sur la composition protéique et la similarité du lait de jument avec le lait humain soutiennent ses propriétés nutritionnelles particulières et sont effet bénéfique global sur la santé. Des recherches plus poussées sont nécessaires pour exploiter au mieux le potentiel du lait de jument en nutrition humaine)

International Dairy Journal, 20 : 609-629, 2010

Identification of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from koumiss, a traditional fermented mare's milk   
Y. Chen, Z. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Liu, H. Zhang, T. Sun

Résumé : Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities in untreated koumiss and koumiss digested with ACE, pepsin, trypsinase, and chymotrypsin were compared and analyzed. Four novel ACE inhibitory peptides (PI, PK, PM, and PP) were purified using ultrafiltration and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The classification study showed that these 4 peptides were of the true inhibitor type. The amino acid sequences of these peptides are YQDPRLGPTGELDPATQPIVAVHNPVIV, PKDLREN, LLLAHLL, and NHRNRMMDHVH, respectively. Their individual IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values were as follows: 14.53 ± 0.21 ?M, 9.82 ± 0.37 ?M, 5.19 ± 0.18 ?M, and 13.42 ± 0.17 ?M. From sequence analysis, we determined that PI was part of ?-casein in mare's milk. The 3 peptides PK, PM, and PP did not correspond with any known milk protein. The results suggest that koumiss is rich in ACE inhibitory peptides, and the ACE inhibitors in koumiss are of the pro-drug type or a mixture of the pro-drug type and the true inhibitor type. These results may provide evidence about the beneficial effects of koumiss, especially on cardiovascular health.
(Traduction : Le lait de jument fermenté est riche en peptides inhibiteurs de l'enzyme de conversion de l'Angiotensine, médicament largement utilisé dans le traitement de l'hypertension artérielle. Ces résultats sont en faveur de possibles effets bénéfiques du lait de jument sur le système cardio-vasculaire.)

Journal of Dairy Science, 93 : 884-892, 2010

Dietetic effects of oral intervention with mare’s milk on the Severity Scoring of Atopic
Dermatitis, on fecal microbiota and on immunological parameters in patients with atopic dermatitis.

C. Foekel et al. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 1-12, 2009. Le lait de jument pour soulager les symptômes de l’eczéma atopique ?

Analysis of major proteins and fat fractions associated with mare’s milk fat globules
C. Barello et al. 
Résumé: Although several studies have aimed to identify mare's milk proteins, only the major whey proteins and some caseins have yet been characterized. Incomplete sequencing of the equine genome and the difficulty of recovering highly hydrophobic proteins means that little is known to date about the proteins associated with milk fat globules, which have been shown to play an important role in newborns' defense mechanisms. The fat fraction, in particular the distribution of unsaturated fatty acids, has been more extensively studied, but complex lipids are only partially elucidated. This study reports a 2-DE approach combined with a powerful method for de novo protein sequencing, and quali- quantitative data on complex lipid composition determined high performance TLC and GC. The presence in mare's milk of long chain highly unsaturated fatty acids, and the evidence of close similarity between equine and human milk fat globule membrane proteins, support the use of mare's milk in human nutrition.

(Traduction : La présence d'acides gras poly-insaturés à longues chaines dans le lait de jument, et la démonstration d'une grande similitude entre les protéines de membrane des micelles (globules graisseux) du lait équin et humain, est en faveur de l'utilisation du lait de jument en nutrition humaine)
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 52:1448-1456, 2008

Qualités nutritionnelles du lait de jument 
J. M. Lecerf et al.
 
Résumé : Le lait de jument a de nombreuses utilisations; sa consommation sous forme de boisson présente de nombreuses qualités du point de vue nutritionnel. La composition du lait de jument est proche de celle du lait de femme par sa faible teneur en azote, son faible ratio caséine/lactalbumine et sa forte proportion de lactose. Il contient moins de matière grasse que le lait de vache et le lait humain. De plus, le lait de jument contient huit fois plus de vitamine C que le lait de vache et deux fois plus que le lait maternel. Les teneurs du lait en protéines et en sel sont similaires chez la jument et chez la femme, alors que le lait de vache est plus riche en sel et en protéines et pourrait ainsi convenir moins bien pour le remplacement du lait maternel chez les nourrissons. Enfin, le lait de jument est bien toléré chez les personnes atteintes d'allergie aux protéines du lait de vache.
Médecine et nutrition, 43:61-70, 2007


Proteomic tools to characterize the protein fraction of Equidae milk
G. Miranda et al.
Résumé : Pony mare's milk SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC patterns were compared with those obtained for other milks (cow, goat and human), as were the relative levels of caseins and major whey proteins in these milks. Our results provide further evidence to support the notion that Equidae milk is closer to human breast milk than milk from bovine and caprine with respect to the casein and lysozyme C contents and casein/whey protein ratio.

(Traduction : Nos résultats apportent de nouvelles preuves établissant que le lait de jument est plus proche du lait humain que du lait des espèces bovines et caprines, en ce qui concerne son contenu en caséine et en lysozyme C et son rapport caséine / protéines totales du petit lait.) 
Proteomics, 4: 2496-2509, 2004

Protein and fat composition of mare’s milk: some nutritional remarks with reference to human and cow’s milk
M. Malacarne et al.
Résumé Milk composition of mammalian species varies widely with reference to genetic, physiological and nutritional factors and environmental conditions. In this survey, the composition of mare's milk is reviewed and compared to human and cow's milk, considering principal protein fractions and fatty acid content. Protein content in mare's milk is higher than in human milk and lower than in cow's milk; casein concentration in mare's milk is intermediate between the other two milks. Fat content is lower in mare's milk compared to human and cow's milk. Distribution of di- and tri-glycerides in mare's and women' milk is similar. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in mare's milk and human milk is remarkably higher than in cow's milk. Mare's milk shows some structural and functional peculiarities that make it more suitable for human nourishment than cow's milk.

( Traduction : Le lait de jument montre quelques particularités structurales et fonctionnelles qui le rendent plus adapté à la nutrition humaine que le lait de vache.)  
International Dairy Journal, 12 :869-877, 2002

Allergenicity of mare’s milk in children with cow’s milk allergy
L. Businco et al.
Résumé : The aim of this study was to investigate the allergenicity of mare's milk in a population of selected children with severe IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Twenty-five children (17 males and 8 females) aged 19 to 72 months with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy underwent skin prick tests with cow's milk and mare's milk and double-blind placebo-controlled oral food challenge with fresh cow's milk, fresh mare's milk, and , as placebo, a soy formula. We performed immunoblotting of cow's and mare's milk developed with IgE from allergic children.
All the children showed strong positive skin test responses to cow's milk; 2 children had positive skin test response to mare's milk. All children had positive food challenge to cow's milk; one child had a positive food challenge to mare's milk. No children reacted to the placebo. In the cow's milk, some proteins are able to strongly react with human IgE; when the sera are tested with mare's milk, the band corresponding to the same proteins are recognized by a lower percentage of sera. These data suggest that mare's milk can be regarded as a good substitute of cow's milk in most children with severe IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. It would be prudent, however, to confirm its tolerability by a supervised titrated oral challenge test.

(Traduction : Ces données suggèrent que le lait de jument peut être considéré comme un bon substitut du lait de vache chez la plupart des enfants présentant une allergie sévère au lait de vache. Il serait prudent toutefois de confirmer sa tolérance par un test oral contrôlé préalable.) 
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 105:1031-1034, 2000

Bioactive component in milk and dairy products
Young W. Park
Résumé Le lait de jument a une valeur nutritionnelle et des caractéristiques avantageuses, telles qu'un contenu élevé en acides gras insaturés, en vitamine C, et un ratio calcium/protéines optimal. Ses composants biologiques (enzymes, oligosaccharides, hormones, facteur de croissance, carnitine) en font un produit naturel de haute qualité pour les enfants, les personnes agées, les malades et les convalescents. Certains pays ont une longue tradition d'usage du lait de jument comme substitut du lait humain ou comme médicament. Puisque la plupart des gens se sentent mieux après une cure de lait de jument, il est possible que le lait de vache soit remplacé par le lait de jument, à condition que celui-ci soit disponible en quantité suffisante.  
Wiley-Blackwell ed.1, 2009.

Bioactive Components in Milk and Dairy Products

Le lait de jument.
M. Hugon, Thèse de Doctorat Vétérinaire, Toulouse, 1996



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